These diplomats wield fiddles, not briefcases

East Carolina University's Greg Hurley is going abroad again for a two-week trip this month, but not exactly for a classic vacation.

It will be Beirut for the viola and violin teacher, who's left Greenville, N.C., every summer for the last five years and gone to places "emerging from conflict" as part of a program for students in formerly war-torn areas.

A kind of summer camp, it teaches students who already have some musical training, and they rehearse and form an orchestra for a concert at the end of the visit.

Every year, the State Department and nonprofit groups help send musical troupes, dance groups and teachers abroad to promote American culture and generate goodwill.

It's all part of cultural diplomacy, an idea that got its start with the "jazz ambassadors" at the height of the Cold War in the 1950s and 1960s. To buff its image, the U.S. sent jazz greats Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong and others overseas to showcase the unique American art form.

The programs and cultural exchanges have exploded since then, with the latest rage being hip-hop, an in-demand art form but one that has also drawn criticism of "hip-hop diplomacy."

For Hurley, an associate professor of music who's on the board of American Voices, the St. Louis-based group that's sponsoring the trips with State Department support, the experiences he's had in Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Thailand have been life-altering for him and, he thinks, for his students.

"It's opened my eyes to other places," he said in an interview.

While the teaching is slower because of the language barrier- done through hand gestures and the international language of music - it all comes together for the big final concert.

"It's always great," Hurley said. "You've worked so hard to pull it off in two weeks' time. The parents are proud. The kids are proud."

The Beirut program has 100 students, including several from Syria and Iraq.

"I think it brings goodwill towards us, and goodwill happens person by person," said Hurley.

The State Department's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs pays for these kinds of programs and exchanges out of its budget, which is $568 million this year. It's very clear about their mission.

"The primary goal of all our cultural exchanges is to build cross-cultural understanding," said Susan Pittman, the bureau's spokeswoman. "With more than half of the world's population under age 30, it's especially important for us to provide avenues for connecting with youth."

The approach is part of what's known as "soft diplomacy," the use of the arts and other forms of social interaction _ from agricultural programs to public construction _ as an instrument of foreign policy that contrasts with the "hard diplomacy" of the military and the economy. It's largely been an easy sell to performers and teachers.

Oklahoma City musician Kyle Dillingham plays a mean fiddle and with his band, Horseshoe Road, has always liked introducing foreign audiences to Western swing, folk music, bluegrass and jazz. His band recently completed a 16-day tour in Liberia, in West Africa, as part of the State Department's Arts Envoy program. It performed for the country's president, as well as to a rural audience where there was no electricity.

"At the heart of what we do is sharing our music with these people and giving these people a taste of American culture through our performances," said Dillingham, who also holds student workshops.

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